A facial fracture is a broken bone in the face. The face has a complex bone structure. Fractures may be minor, or may be very serious.
The facial skeleton consists of the frontal bone (forehead), zygomas (cheekbones), orbital bones (eye sockets), nasal bones, maxillary bones (upper jaw) and mandible (lower jaw). There are many other bones that are found deeper within the facial structure. Muscles required for chewing, swallowing and talking are attached to these bones.
Nasal fractures (broken nose) are the most common. Fractures to other facial bones can also occur. Only one fracture may be present, or there may be several broken bones. Multiple fractures are more likely to occur during a motor vehicle accident or other high-impact accident. Fractures may be unilateral (occurring on one side of the face) or bilateral (both sides of the face).
Facial Bone Fracture Treatment
In general, fractures may be treated by performing a closed reduction (resetting the broken bone or bones without surgery) or an open reduction (surgery that requires an incision to reposition the fractured bones). For a complex fracture with multiple broken bones, reconstructive surgery is required.
The type of treatment will depend on the location and extent of the injury. The aim of treatment for facial fractures is to restore the normal appearance and function of the injured areas.
Life-threatening conditions, such as blockage of the airways, cardiovascular problems, or brain or nervous system injuries, must be treated immediately.